Jose Fuentes/Weight Management Specialist         

The increasing number of overweight and obese people in our society combined with
the public's desire for a quick solution to weight loss has led to the mystification of
exercise and diet and an environment ripe for promoters of quick weight-loss methods
and fad diets.
Sorting through these pile of myths and inaccuracies makes the fitness profesional's job a daunting one.
Clients come to my shop in times, with preconceived ideas about how they should be eating. These
ideas may hinder their progress and have negative health consequences.

The facts about weight loss and gain are quite simple. Eat fewer calories than are expended and there
will be a reduction in weight.

Conversely if one consumes more calories than they expend, there will be an increase in weight.
Today's environment provides a constantly available, palatable food supply ( increasing energy intake )
and promotes a sedentary lifestyle (reducing energy expenditure). The facts are that we eat too much
and move too little, causing America's expanding waistline.

In this section we will address the macronutrients (Protein, carbohydrate and fat) their use and


The primary function of protein is to build and repair body's tissues and structures. It is also involved in
the synthesis of hormones, enzymes and other regulatory peptides. Additionally protein can be used for
energy if calories and carbohydrates are insufficient in the diet.


These recommendations are made by the Recommended Dietary Allowance ( RDA ):

* .8 gm active recreational client

* 1.0 gm bodybuilder

* 1.4 endurance athlete


Carbohydrates are compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and are generally classified as
sugars (simple), starches complex and fiber. The definition of sugar as it would appear on a food label,
is any mono- or disaccharide.

A monosaccharide is a single sugar unit, many of which are connected to starches (storage form of
carbohydrate in plants) and glycogen (storage form of carbohydrate in humans)

A disaccharide refers to (two sugar units) include sucrose (common sugar) lactose  (milk sugar ) and
maltose. Carbohydrates are a chief source of energy for all body functions and muscular exertion. This
leads to a rapid depletion of available and store carbohydrate and creates a continual craving for this
Carbohydrates also help to regulate the digestion and utilization of protein and fats.

For this reason, I believe that carbohydrates are essential for the body when they are well used and
burn efficiently in the body.


Carbohydrates should generally make up the highest percentage of macronutrient calories when one is
attempting fat loss.

The satiating value of complex carbohydrates is especially important when one is in a caloric deficit for
the goal of fat loss.

For most moderately active adults, a carbohydrate intake of between 50 and 60 percent is
recommended. This provides sufficient food volume and the fuel necessary for energy and productive
work outs.


FATS are the most concentrated source of energy in the diet. One gram of fats yields approximately nine
calories when oxidized, furnishing more than twice the calories per gram of carbohydrates or protein. In
addition to provide energy fats act as carriers for the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.

Fats are also divided in Saturated and Unsaturated.

Unsaturated Fats can be further classified according to their degree of unsaturation and can be known
as a Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA )

Monounsaturated fatty acids can be found in (olive and canola oils) and PUFA such as Omega 3 fatty
acids can found in (cold water fish like salmon). They are consider to have favorable effects on
blood-lipid profiles and may play a role in the treatment and prevention of heart disease, hypertension,
arthritis and cancer.

Saturated fatty acids are the ones we need to watch for the body doesn't really use them too much and
are implicated as a risk factor for heart disease by raising bad cholesterol levels (LDL)

Fats must be made up 20 to 30 % percent off our fat intake in our diet.


Now that we have a good understanding on the way macronutrients work, I guarantee  that with a good
exercise program, designed to decrease fat and increase muscle tone in conjunction with a good diet
base with the specificities that I mentioned above, you'll be thrilled of what you could accomplished.